Pantothenic Acid
Pantothenic acid, a member of the B-vitamin family, is an essential nutrient in human nutrition. It is sometimes referred to as vitamin B5. Pantothenic acid is involved in a number of biological reactions, including the production of energy, the catabolism of fatty acids and amino acids, the synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and steroid hormones, and the synthesis of heme and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It also appears to be involved in the regulation of gene expression and in signal transduction.

Passion Flower Root
This wonderful herb is best used in balancing the nervous system and reducing motor nerve activity. It has been widely utilized as an anti-inflammatory and natural pain-killer, and is recommended for those who are discontinuing use of sleeping drugs and/or overcoming alchohol dependency. Passion flower has become increasingly popular due to the knowledge of its tranquilizing effect, without the side effects of depression or disorientation.


Phenylalanine is an essential alpha-amino acid. It exists in two forms, a D and an L form, which are enantiomers (mirror-image molecules) of each other. It has a benzyl side chain. Its name comes from its chemical structures consisting of a phenyl group substituted for one of the hydrogens in the side chain of alanine. Because of its phenyl group, phenylalanine is an aromatic compound. At room temperature, it is a white, powdery solid.

Forms of Phenylalanine


L-Phenylalanine (LPA) is an electrically-neutral amino acid, one of the twenty common amino acids used to biochemically form proteins, coded for by DNA. L-phenylalanine is used in living organisms, including the human body, where it is an essential amino acid. L-phenylalanine can also be converted into L-tyrosine, another one of the twenty protein-forming amino acids. L-tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine (latter three are known as the catecholamines).


D-phenylalanine (DPA), can be synthesized artificially. D-phenylalanine can be converted only into phenylethylamine. D-phenylalanine is a non-protein amino acid, meaning that it does not participate in protein biosynthesis. D-phenylalanine and other D-amino acids are, however, found in proteins, in small amounts, particularly aged proteins and food proteins that have been processed. The biological functions of D-amino acids remain unclear. Some D-amino acids, such as D-phenylalanine, may have pharmacologic activity.


DL-phenylalanine is a racemic mixture of phenylalanine - it contains 50 % each of D and L enantiomers. DL-Phenylalanine is marketed as a nutritional supplement for its putative analgesic and antidepressant activities.

Phosphate is a salt or ester of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is usually found in nature combined with oxygen as phosphate. Most phosphate in the human body is in bone, but phosphate-containing molecules (phospholipids) are also important components of cell membranes and lipoprotein particles, such as good (HDL) and bad (LDL) cholesterol.

Small amounts of phosphate are engaged in biochemical reactions throughout the body. The role of phosphate-containing molecules in aerobic exercise reactions has suggested that phosphate loading might enhance athletic performance, though controlled research has produced inconsistent results.
Phylloquinone is often called vitamin K1. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is stable to air and moisture but decomposes in sunlight. It is found naturally in a wide variety of green plants.
Phytonadione is a man-made form of vitamin K. Phytonadione is a clear, yellow to amber, viscous, and nearly odorless liquid. It is insoluble in water, soluble in chloroform and slightly soluble in ethanol.
Phytosterol is any plant-derived sterol. Phytosterols are a group of steroid alcohol, phytochemicals naturally occurring in plants. They are white powders with mild, characteristic odor, insoluble in water and soluble in alcohols. They have many applications as food additives, and in medicine and cosmetics.


Policosanol is the generic term used for a mixture of long-chain primary aliphatic saturated alcohols. These alcohols are derived from the waxes of such plants as sugar cane (Saccharum officinarium) and yams (e.g. Dioscorea opposita). They are also found in beeswax. Policosanol contains several long chain fatty alcohols, including octocossonol, hexacosanol and triacontanol. Animal and in-vitro research has shown that these compounds may support the cardiovascular system and inhibit lipid peroxidation as well as support macrophage activity. Policosanol lowers both the total cholesterol and the "bad" low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and raises the levels of the "good" high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A review of placebo-controlled studies using policosanol found that at doses of 10 to 20 mg per day, policosanol lowers total cholesterol by 17 to 21%, lowers LDL cholesterol by 21 to 29%, and raises HDL cholesterol by 8 to 15% Triglyceride levels are not influenced by policosanol. It was concluded that policosanol seems to be a promising phytochemical alternative to classic lipid-lowering agents such as the statins and deserves further evaluation.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates, made up of multiple sugar molecules. Examples of polysaccharides include cellulose, starch, and dextrin.
Polyunsaturated Fat
Polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fat, along with monounsaturated fat are "healthy fats," the amount of which in one's daily diet should be near 45 g (in a 2000 calorie-per-day diet). Polyunsaturated fat can be found mostly in grain products, fish and sea food such as herring, salmon, mackerel, and halibut, soybeans, and fish oil. Foods like mayonnaise and soft margarine may also be good sources, but you should always check the nutritional label first. Polyunsaturated fat is necessary for the body and protects against illness. Omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, fish and seafood lower the total amount of fat in the blood, which can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. Omega-6 fatty acids in sunflower oil and safflower oil also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but can contribute to allergies and inflammation.
Potassium is an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, levels of acidity and blood pressure. Potassium, together with sodium-potassium inside the cell and sodium in the fluid surrounding the cell, work together for the nervous system to transmit messages as well as regulating the contraction of muscles. People with low blood levels of potassium who are undergoing heart surgery are at an increased risk of developing heart arrhythmias and an increased need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Potassium is also required for carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
Protein is one of the basic components of food and makes all life possible. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All of the antibodies and enzymes, and many of the hormones in the body are proteins. They provide for the transport of nutrients, oxygen and waste throughout the body. They provide the structure and contracting capability of muscles. They also provide collagen to connective tissues of the body and to the tissues of the skin, hair and nails.